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reported speech discorso raccontato indiretto frasi esempi spiegazioni

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Reported speech


Il discorso indiretto o raccontato si usa per riportare quanto detto da altri. E' introdotto da verbi quali say (dire), tell (dire), ask (chiedere), ecc... Molti elementi della frase cambiano nel passaggio da discorso diretto a discorso indiretto. Ecco prima qualche esempio:

In ingleseIn italiano
I was tired! => He said (that) he was tiredEro stanco! => Lui disse che era stanco
Do not open the door! => She said not to open the doorNon aprire la porta => Lei disse di non aprire la porta
I'm going home => He said (that) he was going homeSto andando a casa => Lui disse che stava andando a casa
Are you having lunch? => He asked me if I was having lunchStai pranzando? => Lui mi chiese se io stessi pranzando

Ecco quali sono le principali variazioni nel passaggio dal discorso diretto a quello indiretto:
  • this => that quando è usato in espressioni di tempo [I'm meeting her this evening => He said he was meeting her that evening]
  • this/that => the quando sono usati come aggettivi dimostrativi [This pen is red => He said that the pen was red]
  • today => that day
  • now => at the moment
  • yesterday => the day before
  • tomorrow => the day after, the following day, ecc...
  • ago => before [I bought it two days ago => He said he had bought it two days before]
  • here => there [The vase is here! => He said that the vase was there]

Ecco invece le variazioni relative ai tempi verbali:
  • Present Simple => Past Simple
  • Past Simple => Past Perfect
  • Present Continuous => Past Continuous
  • Present Perfect => Past Perfect
  • Present Perfect Continuous => Past Perfect Continuous
  • Future Simple => Present Conditional [The train will leave at 7.00 o'clock => He said that the train would leave at 7.00 o'clock]
  • Imperative => Infinitive
  • May => Might
  • Must => Have to

Non variano, invece, i seguenti tempi verbali: Present Conditional, Past Conditional, Past Continuous.
Non variano nemmeno could, might e used to.

I principali verbi usati per riferire il discorso di qualcun'altro sono say e tell; il primo si usa in genere quando si sta parlando in generale, mentre il secondo si usa quando si sta parlando ad una persona specifica e non regge nessuna preposizione:
He said he was tired = Lui disse che era stanco
He tell me he was tired = Lui mi disse che era stanco
He said to me he was tired = Lui mi disse che era stanco

Nel riferire le domande, infine, se nel discorso diretto era presente un pronome interrogativo, questo si riporta nel discorso indiretto:
What time do the shops close? => He wanted to know what time the shops closed



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20/03/16 16:31
forse un pochino più di esempi ma comunque utile!
06/11/15 16:02
dovreste mettere esercizi
15/03/15 12:20
Ci vorrebbero esercizi sulle reported speech
21/05/14 21:20

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